Pottery developed in ancient Egypt





Pottery in predynastic Asrma He knew the old man pottery since the beginning of the stone ages, any pre-dynastic In Ages Alnaulecih any pre 7 thousand a year as the pottery made primitive way where change this method in the Badari and subsequent periods and eras different time began the ancient Egyptians in covenants first manufacturing jewelry clay by hand and the evolution of matter then to use the wheel or wheel for making big jars in the era of big family and the subsequent The memory of Perry that the first use of the wheel pottery was making big jars produced by factory royal family First says Eisner that the history of the use of the first wheel in pottery making due to rule Kha These kings and ascend Bent throne has added Frankfurt that the use of wheel pottery did not prevail in Egypt, but in the era of the Fourth Dynasty, although it had been in sporadic since the era of the first family and I found a picture of that wheel and how to use them on the walls of the tomb dates back to the family fifth and every age of those times, characterized crockery special features.
Pottery Art in the old country:
Remained Lalwani pottery Mini, which are hand-held industries common in the era of the old state as it is not undergone any changes, but evolution has begun to emerge clearly over time, especially in the pots and pans problem on the wheel or wheel, which was administered with the left hand while the right hand formation where she managed the wheel by hand and not underfoot and burned these pots in special furnaces built of brick and dubbed kilns for burning pottery was decorated with breathtaking plant engineering, animal and Adamic beside some signs images common in writing of ancient Egyptian and was spread types of pottery different in this period of in terms of color, shape, and were manufactured pottery large and small shows all the photos on the walls of tombs dating back to this period.
Pottery Art in the Middle Kingdom: -
In this day and age made pottery to some extent for the old state but remains style industry and one of the terms of use of the hand in the composition or use the wheel in formation has evolved industry jars and pots and mugs Sahaf of different shapes and most of these Aloany large and small have no rules prepares them but narrowing in its part lower degree large or small because it was proving in ground home or placed on the rules in the form of ring or in wood-maintained museums in the same examples Moreover reflected in pots with different details Bbath large in forms in general as it is marked not handles and Zarat vases that mimic in shape Alslalaw pots, which are made of stone and decoration of these vessels animal forms and other forms of fictional plant and various engineering.
Art Pottery in the modern state: -
Evolved pottery in the modern state to a large extent, which is considered a golden age for art Amsry old on the face of ever where made pottery made tremendous progress, especially in the use of the configuration process urgency treadle In this era remained vases with simple shapes such as unit inventories known in Amarna It also found pots with colorful pictures where characterize this era decoration pots clay, which were adorned with wreaths cast in bright colors and sometimes adorned also with images biting animals ducks and calves and horses and this is evident in the pottery left by our Twelfth Dynasty Examples include vases different with beautiful colors and shapes found in sanctioned Tutankhamun in addition to what was found pottery in Amarna and Giza process of forming pottery: -
After kneading, which was carried out by the manufacturer of the components of pottery and access to strength appropriate, which used to take a few days and the ingredients are placed in ponds private began artist in the process of forming vases, which were done manually until pre-dynastic period have varied views on the use of the configuration process regularly in state old and there are views mural illustrated in some cemeteries represent this process, which dates back to the Fifth Dynasty in Saqqara and also inside a cemetery Twelfth Dynasty in Beni Hassan In the modern state used the configuration process urgency treadle It is noteworthy that the use of the wheel configuration not completely eliminates the formation of pottery manually, which is still used in rural Egypt until now in the final stage in the formation of Alainakan the artist Ptenaim wet the outside surface by hand and this process is given a beautiful texture and surface, this process leads to fill the pores of the pot potter is not affected by water.
Coloring Pottery Red Balgsol: -
Lye Red is a emulsion of water from ferric oxide and roofing were made using child pale minute granules turn red Balahrac Tstkhaddmvy image emulsion aqueous heavy strength of cladding pots may be added to the red color first used both of them in the final stages of the formation of pots and before completely dry and coatings used most important for a variety of purposes reduce the porosity of the pot potter is not affected by moisture as they abound in the pot after the drought surface texture beautiful landscape and even the artist can decoration different views and finishes easily
Drying crockery: -
The process of drying crockery which was formed from the core operations as the pots after drying stage is in the case of high viscosity and can not be addressed or used only after drying stage and the pots left to dry in the open air away from strong sunlight so as not vases to cracking while longer drought.
Polishing and scouring the surface of the pottery: -
After drying crockery completely was the artist conducting operations to refine and polish the surfaces of State by means of pieces of stone solid soft which was Agamsha artist in oils and greases and waxes or graphite to facilitate the process of refinement and have used stone graphite in the Middle Kingdom for this purpose and the process of refinement affect much in the Acquistion Billy the light color after burning which makes it difficult to emphasize Tgusah Billy or painted Red Balgsol and as a result to change the color of the outer surface of this vessel and the effects of polishing his ability to survive and stability after the burning process
Burning pottery: -
Tattabramlah burning containers after drying last stages of industrialization and its own importance and is considered one of the core processes in the industry and where is expelled water Almadms or United chemically in the child when temperatures 500-600 m, where there is a shift in the physical properties of the material girl who turns into a solid material is elastic It does not affect the water again 0
The one-way transitions are not immediate before returning to the case of plasticity 0
In early times was done incineration process work piles of pots or pots stacked on the ground mixed with fuel and sometimes were covered dung animal to conserve heat on the surfaces upper and fuel available at that time was straw and stalks of plants and trees dry with the possibility to surround these piles wall of mud in the era of late This has led to burning kilns arose and development in the era of the Fifth Dynasty, where there have pictures inside some of the tombs of Saqqara and Bani Hassan of the Twelfth Dynasty 0
The most important methods of coloring and decoration pottery: -
Undoubtedly, the color pottery depends on several factors, including: -
1 - the type of girl used
2 - the nature of the impurities present in the child
3 - Heat center within firing kilns
4 - for burning inside the burning kilns
And Pace easy infinite different colors pottery or even just listed and reason for this is to the great diversity in existing pottery ever different colors and for the existing disparity slightly from color grading per also due on the other hand to what was its habit of launching Mustlahat inaccuracies in Meaning like dark pottery grizzled or yellowish orange on some pots do not have the same user name significance is always 0
The main colors of simple unglazed pottery and ornate are brown, black, red and black pottery and red and gray 0
Pottery structures: -
Brown in pottery is often color metal oxides iron found in the girl used in the making remains unchanged or slightly altered Balahrac bad and very dark spots, which is located often are tainted smoke and sometimes residue plant which has not been burned 0 and this color is likely presence on the Pottery almost all ages, even if it Bnchr presence on primitive pottery and pottery Alinulecy 0
Black Pottery: -
This represents pottery origination and generator of a new era for the development of industry and coloring pottery different no doubt that several factors have helped to know the causes and factors leading to the formation of such a color and that of precise observation of the maker to the gatherings smoke lead to black spots on the pottery in the early stages and that the manufacturer avoid later and Kay discovery can not be attributed to chance alone, but to instinct and intelligence to understand the factors and causes and exploited in the development of the technique for the production of this kind of pottery 0
The A.Lucas conducted then immersed directly in sawdust and straw with left for simple leading to coloring the surface of these vases in black 0 laboratory experiments by heating red pottery in an electric furnace
Red pottery: -
We have reached ancient Egyptian manufacturer to know most of the factors that lead to the red coloring Pottery and clear, namely: -
* User intensity of the flame inside the burning kilns where the greater the amount of flame and degree Tohjh whenever immediate increased redness as the girl with dark red color Balahrac red 0
** For arson and the mean survival of China at ambient glow appropriate period and this clearly shows in pots thick walls where the two sides appear in red while the pottery center keeps brown or dark gray, which gives an indication of inefficiency arson 0
*** Efficiency flame and free of smoke and this point is of great importance has been observed by the manufacturer when you see the black spots on the pots in the event that the flame Ndkhana and requires experience of the manufacturer where the supply quantity omnes of fuel until the incineration process and only the smoke from Mocod New will lead to blackening pottery or black spots it 0
*** Type used and the girl containing iron compounds particularly Alhaddadozah which turn into red ferric oxide and these compounds are found in abundance in the child of clay and less than in calcareous girl 0
**** Use lye or red paint has already indicated that he had used widely in the form of aqueous emulsion of red ocher and impregnating the surface this lye pre-drought full of vessels 0
And different learners in differentiating between lye Red or misting, although it was known that the ocher red contain a large proportion of iron oxide and the rest of the metals child so the work emulsion heavy strength of them will not separated from misting with added color and used Lye red with an operation matting and this process makes the red color deeper 0
Pottery Red Black: -
This type of pottery featuring each of the colors red and black at the same pottery has emerged this pottery is clearly in the early times, especially in the era of Badari where such wares featuring red clear on its exterior the edge or lip immediate as well as the inner surface characterized painted dark black 0
It has been suggested for the manufacture of these vases are two ways first be configured outside red and blackening the nozzle and the inner surface in a separate phase 0
It is many debates on the theme industry these vases is clear that the previous method or clear and practical access to this purpose is to be painted Billy red and after the phase of burning out immediate which is still in the red-and placed upside down and Vohtha down in the type of fuel smoker like sawdust soft wood or straw or causes of black color has revolved around this issue numerous discussions already referred to may be summed up as follows: -
Due to Lucas darkening edge inside the pot or black color generally carbon free conclusively with the abolition of the possibility of turning the iron oxide ferrous black or compounds Haddadozah like silicate Ferrous gray italics blue as also excludes the possibility of the existence of iron oxide magnetic black within components immediate 0
The analysis was conducted many tests showed to contain color Alawsud on the free carbon also add that black color can be produced in pottery Almusta of girl that does not give a red color Balahrac did not use lye red and thus can not be the result color is a ferrous compounds 0
"Gorden child" As opines that although contain black in such pots on the free carbon, it is not fair return color and unequivocally to carbon only 0
Crowfoot with Lucas in the black color depends entirely on carbon smoke and carbon atoms very precise as consistent can permeate the pores of pottery old and especially that these pores after stage burning a stage which is still where Alawaty glowing be free of air so it during cooling in the middle smoker, the air upon his return to pore attracts lumen atoms black smoke 0
While little of both Frankfurt and Frosudaik black due to the formation of ferrous oxide black and bring him Petrie into Alhaddbd oxide magnetic 0
Causes of pottery relics damage: -
Exposed pottery relics from the pots and pots and statues and other works man-made pottery through periods of history to many factors and physico-chemical forces which cause serious damage threatened always damaged and destruction 0
And can indicate the most destructive factors are as follows: -
1 - manufacturing defects 0
2 - Viseu damage chemical agents (temperature - humidity - air pollution - ground water carrier for different salts) 0
3 - damage to biological (bacteria - algae - fungus) 0
4 - Poor supply and storage 0
Manufacturing defects and arson: -
It is known that clay pottery has manufactured metal components and metal is characterized by homogeneity in terms of its nature and the cohesion and crystalline forms and due to this reason pottery exposed to damage over time as a result of the interaction of these components with the factors and forces different damage 0
The rights of ancient Egyptian did not have the means burning new able to burn pottery burned new but making to burn those pots kilns primitive did not burn inside pots College and which resulted in the presence of parts incomplete burning inside these pots and parts medium arson and parts incomplete burning 0
Given the disparity in grades combustion suffered crockery damaged and private parts, which did not burn burning well, which has been one of the weakest parts in those pots and crockery, which has ancient man Bzachrvatha whether بالتلوين or glaze did not work in all cases the selection of appropriate decoration materials remained layer patterning roofs crockery susceptible to damage as a result of interact Vezyukimaaúaa with factors and forces existing damage in the surrounding medium 0
The numerous bug existing plug-in that they are made pottery has played an important role both in stimulating the physicochemical interactions between these components and the factors and the forces of damage or bug remained a source of damage in those pots 0
Physicochemical ravages: -
The heat, humidity and pollution and ground water soluble salts bearing of the worst factors and the forces of the damage, which adversely affect the various components of the pottery jars 0
The different rates of heat consequent differences in rates of contraction and expansion of the metal components of the pottery utensils that transformed over time into separate components from each other and become a physical structure of these complex components weak unconscious cohesion 0
While causing rates high humidity to seep into the inside components pottery at severely damaged them crystallized or re-crystallized salts within those vessels as well as the melting of some of the components are soluble in water, especially in pots, which did not burn components burned as good as that moisture absorbed those vessels Format the appropriate medium for the growth of micro-organisms on surfaces such wares 0
The low humidity that the effect is not the same risk resulting from high humidity rates but low humidity cause different damage to pottery jars 0
The components air pollution gaseous, liquid and solid occur damage physicochemical serious components mineral that enter in the formation of crockery where it causes acid gas air pollution, such as sulfuric acid and nitric acid and acid Alkoiyonic in damage components crockery as well as to those acids cause damage to colors and materials Almzjh were used in surface decoration crockery 0
The components of air pollution solid dust and soot and granules of carbon and other harmful components cause damage decoration materials on the surface of pottery as well as to those components contaminated play an important role in activating chemical reaction between gases air pollution and metal components that make up the crockery 0
The ground water in the soil containing pottery of the most serious ravages because they carry a high percentage of self salts such as sodium chloride and sulfate and calcium carbonate, potassium, sodium, and all salts cause damage and fragmentation of the various components of the pottery jars 0
The ground water cause melting and damage to metal components which did not penetrate fully burned which would entail serious damage to those vessels 0
Biological damage: -
Cause bacteria, algae and fungi that grow on the surface of some crockery prone to moisture damage what on the roofs of those jars of pigments as turn colors over time to the colors pale and fragile was devoid of pomp and beauty as well as to those colors happen to her change of atony result the impact of these objects devour harmful intermediate material used in those colors 0
Poor storage and supply: -
Exposed pottery at some stores and museums to serious damage lose what its characteristic values ​​artistic, aesthetic, archaeological result exposed to acts affecting them both Alboukdsh or broken or change the parameters as well as the work of supply and storage, which are not based on fundamentals and rules of scientific and technical 0
Principles of treatment and maintenance of pottery relics: -
Operations are designed treatment by the restorers to rid the effects pottery of outputs and manifestations of damage different Soama be them on the roofs of these effects or down these surfaces that possible also aims these operations to extend the life of these effects as long as possible as a document and material evidence on the evolution of the arts and industries pottery through different historical eras 0
The processes of treatment depends on two basic methods, according to the nature of the outputs of the damage and the degree of their adherence to the roofs effects pottery first mechanical treatment method and the second method of chemotherapy 0
First: - Mechanical treatment: -
Mechanical treatment and are using different tools and devices used by restorers in order to remove what may deposition or suspended clay surfaces effects of different outputs damage or reduce accumulations above those surfaces 0
And achieved the success of this type of treatment in good choice restorer to the means and tools treatment and usage in different purposes Valmmermm uses many tools such as scalpels and chisels light and kinds of brushes and devices suction dust and residue damage different which enables restorer of removed from the roof of the effects pottery in addition to other devices
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