3D Printing in Ceramics

New AHRC film looks at how creative innovation can translate to new products.
Arts and humanities research generates innovative ideas with real-world applications and commercial potential. One example of research that is realising this potential and contributing to economic growth is an AHRC-funded Knowledge Exchange project at the University of the West of England.
In this film we see how researchers at the Centre for Fine Print Research, Led by Professor Stephen Hoskins and his team, have developed new methods of creating ceramics using 3D printing technology and worked with Denby Potteries to test designs and develop prototype models in ceramics. 
Through this method, ceramics are built up layer by layer using a specially-created -- and now patented - ceramic powder. They are then fired and glazed in the usual way. 'Printing' ceramics in this way means that highly intricate and complex ceramics can be created that would have been impossible to achieve traditional methods. This has opened up commercial potential through quicker manufacturing processes and new design options. Gary Hawley, Senior Designer at Denby, praised the partnership between his company and researchers, saying that the new process is "pushing the boundaries of what is possible".
The film concludes with Professor Hoskins' inspirational view of what the future for 3D print technology might look like. This includes the announcement of an exciting new AHRC-funded project which will see the Professor Hoskins and his team to undertaking a major investigation into a self-glazing 3D printed ceramic, inspired by ancient Egyptian Faience ceramic techniques.The process they aim to develop would enable ceramic artists, designers and craftspeople to print 3D objects in a ceramic material which can be glazed and vitrified in one firing.

The team hopes to bring ancient tradition into the 21st century, joining together old and new hand-in-hand in a project that continues to push boundaries in this area of ceramic research.

Japanese Pottery Styles

Japanese pottery can be divided in to 4 main categories - earthenware, porcelain, glazed and un-glazed stoneware. These 4 kinds of pottery have been made in Japan since prehistoric times, but it is more recently that it has become so widespread. Most pottery that has been made in Japan is used for practical purposes, such as bowls, vases or plates. Although this fact is true, the decoration of the pottery pieces has always been of the highest quality. As with many other Japanese customs and rituals, the art of making pottery and porcelain has been refined and mastered over hundreds of years.
Satsuma Pottery 
One of the most popular kinds is called Satsuma and was made around 400 years ago from a brown clay found in the Satsuma region. Some say that it is a cross between pottery and porcelain, due to the fact that it is fired at a very low temperature. The tell-tale markings of a piece of Satsuma is the creamy color and the crackled glaze.
Arita Pottery
Around the same time that Satsuma pottery was created, the blue and white porcelain called Arita was also being made. These pieces are white in color with an ink like blue under glaze. They are also often decorated with figures of Japanese gods or important people. This became a very popular style in Japan, so much so that it could not be produced quickly enough to satisfy demand. Skilled workers in China were used to create Arita and ship it over for sale.

Imari Pottery 
The word Imari, which is actually the name of a port near the town of Arita, is often given as a term to describe all pottery coming from Japan from 1600 onwards. The name was given due to the fact that the port was used to export pottery all over the world and therefore the term Imari pottery was born. The real names for the different types or styles of Imari pottery relate to either the places they were made in, the potter who made them or the family name.

Made In Occupied Japan 
In 1945, Japan was occupied by the Allied forces as part of World War 2. During the 7 year occupation, any porcelain or pottery that was being exported out of the country had to be marked as being from Occupied Japan. Most of the pieces that were sold abroad were cheaper kitchenware or pottery pieces such as vases. Any of the good and fine pieces stayed in the country. The idea was that the mass export of these kinds of goods would help build Japan's economy and stabilize the country after the war.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/4745116

Learning To Make Pottery With Films

Pottery making is an almost 12 thousand year old art of making objects by molding clay. Pottery making is a wonderful combination of the potter's wheel and the balance maintained by the potter. There are various schools active in teaching the art of pottery. Today we have various short films introducing the art of ceramics to the common people. In these films you can learn the art of pottery making by watching it on your television or computer monitor.
Famous professional potters run the ceramics departments of various countries. Through films and videos they introduce us to various steps and prerequisites of pottery. They teach us to open the clay after understanding its various properties. Then we learn how to form various items through a range of hand movements and how to fire the clay in a kiln at the pertinent temperature for it to become pottery ware. Even decorating the pottery with paints is learned by simply watching the demonstrations. Today with numerous decorating techniques and beautiful designs, pottery has attracted people of all ages. Pottery has become a personal hobby. It takes a lot of hard work and patience but people interested in pottery have great fun making ceramics.
With the help of short films on pottery making we can fullfil our aspirations to make our own pottery objects without having to go to pottery classes. Pottery making films, involve a stepwise introduction to the art of pottery for beginners. Pottery making films can also be used as reference study material for those who are taking pottery classes. People who want to enhance their skills in pottery can also brush up with various demonstrations in the films. Pottery making films are a creation of the modern era that have augmented the personal interests of people towards the art of pottery.
The culture and resources of a country are the leading factors in deciding the styles and designs of pottery but the pottery making style of any country can be learned at home through pottery making films. Today, individually involved potters are into making pottery a thing of beauty. We can learn to make some of the masterpieces in ceramics by following the instructions of pottery making films. We can learn how to join two objects together e.g. a handle to a mug. A little effort mixed with personal approach to the piece of art can create some outstanding pieces of pottery.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/983818

Handmade Pottery

Handmade pottery is one of the oldest crafts known to man with the earliest artistic pottery dating back to 25,000 B.C. give or take a few centuries. The first Pottery crafted for functional purposes, handmade pottery vessels, were used to hold water. All of the ancient pottery dating back before about 3,000 to 4,000 B.C. would have been hand carved pottery, meaning that it was formed or molded all by hand in a stationary manner. We know this because the first Pottery Wheel was not invented until about this time. The invention of the first Pottery wheel significantly changed how pottery was created and the new process know as 'hand thrown' created new pottery forms in many round, symmetrical and interesting shapes. Vases, bowls and cups for drinking could now be created more easily and in a more uniformed manner. Archaeologist have unearthed enough antique pottery to be able to understand the technology and skill level possessed by ancient potters.
The act of hand crafting pottery continues to be practiced today by hundreds of thousands of potters across the globe. Handmade Pottery is made for both functional purposes and for artistic expression. There are hundreds of styles and techniques available to modern day potters but they all follow the same general steps of handcrafted and hand thrown pottery. And of course because some pottery, such as Polish Pottery or Polish Stoneware, is hand painted even uniformed pottery of similar shapes and sizes can have a unique appearance. Though some modern day potters may use an electric pottery wheel as opposed to a kick wheel or manual potter's wheel the basic steps of how to make pottery have not changed in hundreds of years.
Pottery is first thrown on the wheel (or hand shaped), then fired at extremely high temperatures exceeding 1,500 degrees. The first firing removes water and makes the piece retain its shape, the color of the pottery at this time is dependent on the clay and the kiln temperature. The second firing incorporates a glaze that is usually unique and often a closely guarded secret of the particular potter. Most pottery that is painted is done so between the 2 firings. The truly unique and beautiful colors of many handmade pottery pieces are dependent on many factors including the type of clay used which is often tied to a geographic area. Polish pottery and stoneware from the Bolshevik city of Poland for instance is famous for its white clay. Atlanta in the US is known for its vibrant red clay. The source Clay and the types of glazes and methods for applying and also other substances used in the firing process such as sawdust, sand, etc., help to determine the uniqueness of handcrafted pottery.
OK, so we've determined handmade pottery dates back for a long time and there are many interesting aspects of its history and sure the pieces created are great to collect but what about the satisfaction of the act of making pottery? Even novices can enjoy a class in handmade pottery to better appreciate the special work performed by the thousands of excellent potters and artisans creating pottery art around the world. Children especially will enjoy the opportunity to try to create and decorate an object made from a lump of sticky dirt. Adults and kids can also enjoy the activity of painting their own pottery, an activity where they don't make the piece from clay but rather paint an unglazed piece of pottery such as a plate, a coffee mug, etc., and then return to pick it up after it has been fired. Most people

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/4011953

Pottery developed in ancient Egypt

Pottery in predynastic Asrma He knew the old man pottery since the beginning of the stone ages, any pre-dynastic In Ages Alnaulecih any pre 7 thousand a year as the pottery made primitive way where change this method in the Badari and subsequent periods and eras different time began the ancient Egyptians in covenants first manufacturing jewelry clay by hand and the evolution of matter then to use the wheel or wheel for making big jars in the era of big family and the subsequent The memory of Perry that the first use of the wheel pottery was making big jars produced by factory royal family First says Eisner that the history of the use of the first wheel in pottery making due to rule Kha These kings and ascend Bent throne has added Frankfurt that the use of wheel pottery did not prevail in Egypt, but in the era of the Fourth Dynasty, although it had been in sporadic since the era of the first family and I found a picture of that wheel and how to use them on the walls of the tomb dates back to the family fifth and every age of those times, characterized crockery special features.
Pottery Art in the old country:
Remained Lalwani pottery Mini, which are hand-held industries common in the era of the old state as it is not undergone any changes, but evolution has begun to emerge clearly over time, especially in the pots and pans problem on the wheel or wheel, which was administered with the left hand while the right hand formation where she managed the wheel by hand and not underfoot and burned these pots in special furnaces built of brick and dubbed kilns for burning pottery was decorated with breathtaking plant engineering, animal and Adamic beside some signs images common in writing of ancient Egyptian and was spread types of pottery different in this period of in terms of color, shape, and were manufactured pottery large and small shows all the photos on the walls of tombs dating back to this period.
Pottery Art in the Middle Kingdom: -
In this day and age made pottery to some extent for the old state but remains style industry and one of the terms of use of the hand in the composition or use the wheel in formation has evolved industry jars and pots and mugs Sahaf of different shapes and most of these Aloany large and small have no rules prepares them but narrowing in its part lower degree large or small because it was proving in ground home or placed on the rules in the form of ring or in wood-maintained museums in the same examples Moreover reflected in pots with different details Bbath large in forms in general as it is marked not handles and Zarat vases that mimic in shape Alslalaw pots, which are made of stone and decoration of these vessels animal forms and other forms of fictional plant and various engineering.
Art Pottery in the modern state: -
Evolved pottery in the modern state to a large extent, which is considered a golden age for art Amsry old on the face of ever where made pottery made tremendous progress, especially in the use of the configuration process urgency treadle In this era remained vases with simple shapes such as unit inventories known in Amarna It also found pots with colorful pictures where characterize this era decoration pots clay, which were adorned with wreaths cast in bright colors and sometimes adorned also with images biting animals ducks and calves and horses and this is evident in the pottery left by our Twelfth Dynasty Examples include vases different with beautiful colors and shapes found in sanctioned Tutankhamun in addition to what was found pottery in Amarna and Giza process of forming pottery: -
After kneading, which was carried out by the manufacturer of the components of pottery and access to strength appropriate, which used to take a few days and the ingredients are placed in ponds private began artist in the process of forming vases, which were done manually until pre-dynastic period have varied views on the use of the configuration process regularly in state old and there are views mural illustrated in some cemeteries represent this process, which dates back to the Fifth Dynasty in Saqqara and also inside a cemetery Twelfth Dynasty in Beni Hassan In the modern state used the configuration process urgency treadle It is noteworthy that the use of the wheel configuration not completely eliminates the formation of pottery manually, which is still used in rural Egypt until now in the final stage in the formation of Alainakan the artist Ptenaim wet the outside surface by hand and this process is given a beautiful texture and surface, this process leads to fill the pores of the pot potter is not affected by water.
Coloring Pottery Red Balgsol: -
Lye Red is a emulsion of water from ferric oxide and roofing were made using child pale minute granules turn red Balahrac Tstkhaddmvy image emulsion aqueous heavy strength of cladding pots may be added to the red color first used both of them in the final stages of the formation of pots and before completely dry and coatings used most important for a variety of purposes reduce the porosity of the pot potter is not affected by moisture as they abound in the pot after the drought surface texture beautiful landscape and even the artist can decoration different views and finishes easily
Drying crockery: -
The process of drying crockery which was formed from the core operations as the pots after drying stage is in the case of high viscosity and can not be addressed or used only after drying stage and the pots left to dry in the open air away from strong sunlight so as not vases to cracking while longer drought.
Polishing and scouring the surface of the pottery: -
After drying crockery completely was the artist conducting operations to refine and polish the surfaces of State by means of pieces of stone solid soft which was Agamsha artist in oils and greases and waxes or graphite to facilitate the process of refinement and have used stone graphite in the Middle Kingdom for this purpose and the process of refinement affect much in the Acquistion Billy the light color after burning which makes it difficult to emphasize Tgusah Billy or painted Red Balgsol and as a result to change the color of the outer surface of this vessel and the effects of polishing his ability to survive and stability after the burning process
Burning pottery: -
Tattabramlah burning containers after drying last stages of industrialization and its own importance and is considered one of the core processes in the industry and where is expelled water Almadms or United chemically in the child when temperatures 500-600 m, where there is a shift in the physical properties of the material girl who turns into a solid material is elastic It does not affect the water again 0
The one-way transitions are not immediate before returning to the case of plasticity 0
In early times was done incineration process work piles of pots or pots stacked on the ground mixed with fuel and sometimes were covered dung animal to conserve heat on the surfaces upper and fuel available at that time was straw and stalks of plants and trees dry with the possibility to surround these piles wall of mud in the era of late This has led to burning kilns arose and development in the era of the Fifth Dynasty, where there have pictures inside some of the tombs of Saqqara and Bani Hassan of the Twelfth Dynasty 0
The most important methods of coloring and decoration pottery: -
Undoubtedly, the color pottery depends on several factors, including: -
1 - the type of girl used
2 - the nature of the impurities present in the child
3 - Heat center within firing kilns
4 - for burning inside the burning kilns
And Pace easy infinite different colors pottery or even just listed and reason for this is to the great diversity in existing pottery ever different colors and for the existing disparity slightly from color grading per also due on the other hand to what was its habit of launching Mustlahat inaccuracies in Meaning like dark pottery grizzled or yellowish orange on some pots do not have the same user name significance is always 0
The main colors of simple unglazed pottery and ornate are brown, black, red and black pottery and red and gray 0
Pottery structures: -
Brown in pottery is often color metal oxides iron found in the girl used in the making remains unchanged or slightly altered Balahrac bad and very dark spots, which is located often are tainted smoke and sometimes residue plant which has not been burned 0 and this color is likely presence on the Pottery almost all ages, even if it Bnchr presence on primitive pottery and pottery Alinulecy 0
Black Pottery: -
This represents pottery origination and generator of a new era for the development of industry and coloring pottery different no doubt that several factors have helped to know the causes and factors leading to the formation of such a color and that of precise observation of the maker to the gatherings smoke lead to black spots on the pottery in the early stages and that the manufacturer avoid later and Kay discovery can not be attributed to chance alone, but to instinct and intelligence to understand the factors and causes and exploited in the development of the technique for the production of this kind of pottery 0
The A.Lucas conducted then immersed directly in sawdust and straw with left for simple leading to coloring the surface of these vases in black 0 laboratory experiments by heating red pottery in an electric furnace
Red pottery: -
We have reached ancient Egyptian manufacturer to know most of the factors that lead to the red coloring Pottery and clear, namely: -
* User intensity of the flame inside the burning kilns where the greater the amount of flame and degree Tohjh whenever immediate increased redness as the girl with dark red color Balahrac red 0
** For arson and the mean survival of China at ambient glow appropriate period and this clearly shows in pots thick walls where the two sides appear in red while the pottery center keeps brown or dark gray, which gives an indication of inefficiency arson 0
*** Efficiency flame and free of smoke and this point is of great importance has been observed by the manufacturer when you see the black spots on the pots in the event that the flame Ndkhana and requires experience of the manufacturer where the supply quantity omnes of fuel until the incineration process and only the smoke from Mocod New will lead to blackening pottery or black spots it 0
*** Type used and the girl containing iron compounds particularly Alhaddadozah which turn into red ferric oxide and these compounds are found in abundance in the child of clay and less than in calcareous girl 0
**** Use lye or red paint has already indicated that he had used widely in the form of aqueous emulsion of red ocher and impregnating the surface this lye pre-drought full of vessels 0
And different learners in differentiating between lye Red or misting, although it was known that the ocher red contain a large proportion of iron oxide and the rest of the metals child so the work emulsion heavy strength of them will not separated from misting with added color and used Lye red with an operation matting and this process makes the red color deeper 0
Pottery Red Black: -
This type of pottery featuring each of the colors red and black at the same pottery has emerged this pottery is clearly in the early times, especially in the era of Badari where such wares featuring red clear on its exterior the edge or lip immediate as well as the inner surface characterized painted dark black 0
It has been suggested for the manufacture of these vases are two ways first be configured outside red and blackening the nozzle and the inner surface in a separate phase 0
It is many debates on the theme industry these vases is clear that the previous method or clear and practical access to this purpose is to be painted Billy red and after the phase of burning out immediate which is still in the red-and placed upside down and Vohtha down in the type of fuel smoker like sawdust soft wood or straw or causes of black color has revolved around this issue numerous discussions already referred to may be summed up as follows: -
Due to Lucas darkening edge inside the pot or black color generally carbon free conclusively with the abolition of the possibility of turning the iron oxide ferrous black or compounds Haddadozah like silicate Ferrous gray italics blue as also excludes the possibility of the existence of iron oxide magnetic black within components immediate 0
The analysis was conducted many tests showed to contain color Alawsud on the free carbon also add that black color can be produced in pottery Almusta of girl that does not give a red color Balahrac did not use lye red and thus can not be the result color is a ferrous compounds 0
"Gorden child" As opines that although contain black in such pots on the free carbon, it is not fair return color and unequivocally to carbon only 0
Crowfoot with Lucas in the black color depends entirely on carbon smoke and carbon atoms very precise as consistent can permeate the pores of pottery old and especially that these pores after stage burning a stage which is still where Alawaty glowing be free of air so it during cooling in the middle smoker, the air upon his return to pore attracts lumen atoms black smoke 0
While little of both Frankfurt and Frosudaik black due to the formation of ferrous oxide black and bring him Petrie into Alhaddbd oxide magnetic 0
Causes of pottery relics damage: -
Exposed pottery relics from the pots and pots and statues and other works man-made pottery through periods of history to many factors and physico-chemical forces which cause serious damage threatened always damaged and destruction 0
And can indicate the most destructive factors are as follows: -
1 - manufacturing defects 0
2 - Viseu damage chemical agents (temperature - humidity - air pollution - ground water carrier for different salts) 0
3 - damage to biological (bacteria - algae - fungus) 0
4 - Poor supply and storage 0
Manufacturing defects and arson: -
It is known that clay pottery has manufactured metal components and metal is characterized by homogeneity in terms of its nature and the cohesion and crystalline forms and due to this reason pottery exposed to damage over time as a result of the interaction of these components with the factors and forces different damage 0
The rights of ancient Egyptian did not have the means burning new able to burn pottery burned new but making to burn those pots kilns primitive did not burn inside pots College and which resulted in the presence of parts incomplete burning inside these pots and parts medium arson and parts incomplete burning 0
Given the disparity in grades combustion suffered crockery damaged and private parts, which did not burn burning well, which has been one of the weakest parts in those pots and crockery, which has ancient man Bzachrvatha whether بالتلوين or glaze did not work in all cases the selection of appropriate decoration materials remained layer patterning roofs crockery susceptible to damage as a result of interact Vezyukimaaúaa with factors and forces existing damage in the surrounding medium 0
The numerous bug existing plug-in that they are made pottery has played an important role both in stimulating the physicochemical interactions between these components and the factors and the forces of damage or bug remained a source of damage in those pots 0
Physicochemical ravages: -
The heat, humidity and pollution and ground water soluble salts bearing of the worst factors and the forces of the damage, which adversely affect the various components of the pottery jars 0
The different rates of heat consequent differences in rates of contraction and expansion of the metal components of the pottery utensils that transformed over time into separate components from each other and become a physical structure of these complex components weak unconscious cohesion 0
While causing rates high humidity to seep into the inside components pottery at severely damaged them crystallized or re-crystallized salts within those vessels as well as the melting of some of the components are soluble in water, especially in pots, which did not burn components burned as good as that moisture absorbed those vessels Format the appropriate medium for the growth of micro-organisms on surfaces such wares 0
The low humidity that the effect is not the same risk resulting from high humidity rates but low humidity cause different damage to pottery jars 0
The components air pollution gaseous, liquid and solid occur damage physicochemical serious components mineral that enter in the formation of crockery where it causes acid gas air pollution, such as sulfuric acid and nitric acid and acid Alkoiyonic in damage components crockery as well as to those acids cause damage to colors and materials Almzjh were used in surface decoration crockery 0
The components of air pollution solid dust and soot and granules of carbon and other harmful components cause damage decoration materials on the surface of pottery as well as to those components contaminated play an important role in activating chemical reaction between gases air pollution and metal components that make up the crockery 0
The ground water in the soil containing pottery of the most serious ravages because they carry a high percentage of self salts such as sodium chloride and sulfate and calcium carbonate, potassium, sodium, and all salts cause damage and fragmentation of the various components of the pottery jars 0
The ground water cause melting and damage to metal components which did not penetrate fully burned which would entail serious damage to those vessels 0
Biological damage: -
Cause bacteria, algae and fungi that grow on the surface of some crockery prone to moisture damage what on the roofs of those jars of pigments as turn colors over time to the colors pale and fragile was devoid of pomp and beauty as well as to those colors happen to her change of atony result the impact of these objects devour harmful intermediate material used in those colors 0
Poor storage and supply: -
Exposed pottery at some stores and museums to serious damage lose what its characteristic values ​​artistic, aesthetic, archaeological result exposed to acts affecting them both Alboukdsh or broken or change the parameters as well as the work of supply and storage, which are not based on fundamentals and rules of scientific and technical 0
Principles of treatment and maintenance of pottery relics: -
Operations are designed treatment by the restorers to rid the effects pottery of outputs and manifestations of damage different Soama be them on the roofs of these effects or down these surfaces that possible also aims these operations to extend the life of these effects as long as possible as a document and material evidence on the evolution of the arts and industries pottery through different historical eras 0
The processes of treatment depends on two basic methods, according to the nature of the outputs of the damage and the degree of their adherence to the roofs effects pottery first mechanical treatment method and the second method of chemotherapy 0
First: - Mechanical treatment: -
Mechanical treatment and are using different tools and devices used by restorers in order to remove what may deposition or suspended clay surfaces effects of different outputs damage or reduce accumulations above those surfaces 0
And achieved the success of this type of treatment in good choice restorer to the means and tools treatment and usage in different purposes Valmmermm uses many tools such as scalpels and chisels light and kinds of brushes and devices suction dust and residue damage different which enables restorer of removed from the roof of the effects pottery in addition to other devices

Pottery - clay between air and fire

      After drying products mud in the air, describing the pots in a room thing located above the combustion chamber in the oven (ie, above the furnace), and must take into account the distribution of the pieces carefully inside the oven and subjected manufactures prepared for roasting temperatures homogeneous, produced by the process thing evaporation of atoms of water remaining inside dough clay, and combustion of organic materials where and then turn to the substance solid impact heat of the fire, and give us the Xi dried mud fire ceramic products mud with porous structure of brick called pottery, pottery first products mud roast is a light material density nature muddy dark, and produces low temperatures ranging from / 600-950 ° C /, and is divided into three types of pottery are:

1 - Pottery Red: This includes products thick mud easy or medium such as fusion agricultural soils and alkaline Tainat, and has produced and used through the ages, especially in building homes and Pavement.

2 - red pottery ceramic: ranging in color from cream and pale yellow to yellow ceramic, and is made from Tinat alkaline medium fusion Ktainat iron and limestone, and painted Bkhaltat simple Lead Oxide, kaolin, or Atzjaj Baltmlh, is Almajulika Italian (ie squared pottery glazed) in a simple of this type of pottery, which are widely used to cover walls and floors, and the origins of this label back to the city of Mallorca Andalusian famous for its pottery industry called leafy and lush, which earned it the name of what Aorka (Mallorca Maiorca).

3 - Pottery White: It is the latter type of products pottery, and is considered one of the finest pottery is little pores, white in color, also from stronger types of pottery, and the least dense and Ergaha in wall thickness, and is made from pulp, clay secondary white 

To work ceramic between water and air

      After the completion of the formation and treatment and coatings, are subject pottery for the drying process natural outdoor to rid the dough of water that contains it, so as to avoid what may Ihs her from cracking during grilling, turn the dough clay dried impact warm to material fossilized solid and cohesive, and turns paint to crust solid as well, Temperatures approved in Chi dried mud between / 600 and 1400 ° C / depending on the components of the mud, and the process Shi ceramics and pottery in ovens vary according to time and place in its architectural structure, even in the ways of combustion and means, incinerators primitive is open fires composed of a hole in the ground or from space are placed where the pottery center of flammable materials such as wood and dry grass and manure beasts and grilled in the open air, and this method is primitive does not help to get outstanding results due to the weakness of the heat and the difficulty of monitoring barbecuing, to accompany this the process of disintegration and cracked and crashed for some manufactures, and put out the fire and get Products pottery which material is used dirt to cool the pieces and smoked at the same time, and this is what leads to leaving patches of brown or black on the surface of pottery so-called product potter in this case Elmaragash or smoker.

      The most common form of ovens thing, is the oven, which consists of the combustion chamber (house fire) that are built above the room thing, and relate to the oven by holes implement them heat to the inside as it works to Shi products mud dried and isolated more often about the course of the smoke, it is worth mentioning that several models of these furnaces have been discovered at the site of Sarafand (Srepta), and in the center of Beirut fossils, dating back to different historical periods from the Phoenician period until the medieval period.

Composition of the ceramic art form

      There are ways used in ancient configuration process, which begins mass mud and ending Ballerina or as artistic giant formed, and for this we find three ways, namely: forming by hand, forming a wheel, and forming molding and casting, and is forming hand technique most ancient and most simply where they are building vessels for example configures ropes of mud damage to spiral and takes the form of loops successive settled by hand to be the walls of the container, and uses the potter a number of simple tools consisting of wood Smokeless and Almakect, in the case of the formation of the business relatively large statues that emptied from the inside so as not to distort or crack and explode during firing.

      At the level of archaeological discoveries, to point out that the large numbers of old pots by hand problem, which date back to the period between the sixth millennium and the third millennium BC. M., express harmony in the aesthetic elements and upscale reflect the capabilities of the ancient potters in that period.

      The composition of the wheel goes back to the second half of the fourth millennium BC. M., and the first primitive form of potter's wheel (wheel) discovered in Mesopotamia, and started to be used in the ancient world after that, and in the first it was a cupboard manually move the hand, a fixed base The disc collects mobile vertical axis, and the back of the cupboard after a disks that moves by foot is the most sophisticated and still using to this day.

      He helped discover the cupboard rapid potters ancient control rule and limited function hands on the settlement and the formation of dough clay better, and it must be noted here that the wheel allows the formation of business pottery circular section only, With regard aftershocks piece ceramic (Kalmsb or Alzloma or neck or base of high or refinery) , they are made in isolation from the bowl and form a single, then added to it and stuck after that dry out a bit by soft mud.

      The technical molding and shaping through the template prepared for the purpose of tissue and re-production numbers many of the same model is an ancient technique also used widely in the Mediterranean basin, as indicated by the archaeological discoveries in downtown Beirut, for example, Valqalb made from model has been shaped by hand or a wheel, was concocted and turned to fill out the mud grilled (pottery), and can potter through pressure quantity of mud stretched over the mold and pressed by hand in order to take the form of the model, and the magnitude sometimes forms of decorative produce multiple models and repeated the same form, and in the more complex cases require model the process of forming different, and are segmented work depending on the nature of the elements of the model, and in both cases requires completion of the artwork ceramic intervention potter final, so as to address the surface after molding to settle the bumps, and directed by piece form technical to be her, and surface treatment are in the three cases to form a piece that was by hand or on a cupboard or in a manner molding, designed this process to refine the work ceramic and make it homogeneous and soft and is done after the dry dough bit by wooden or stone or bone, and contribute to this way of clogging pores, and it becomes the pot less permeable to fluids and less susceptible to nominated . To reach outstanding results, the Potters baptized to prepare liquid clay soils of different colors are used coat and called the term archaeological lining (Engobe / Slip) coated by the artwork before firing often constitutes paint in this case envelope earns wall a new color different from the color of the dough, and place This process in several ways: either be submerged vessel in the basin of liquid mud, either to extend the liquid on its surface by brush or a piece of leather or fabric.

Porcelain between the material and configuration

      In addition to being a product of porcelain Manual, diverse in its basic components, it takes in the field of archaeology various other indications, ceramics The term becomes more often when totalitarian reflects historical stage, we say, for example ceramic or porcelain Mesopotamia (Terasagelata) Roman is intended that the reference to art objects Made of porcelain with common characteristics: geographical, cultural, and technical These industry technical began to take its framework the geographical and cultural in the second half of the Neolithic period around / 6000 s. M / in the Near East, such as: Hassouna in northern Iraq and Margarita (Ras Shamra) in northern Syria.

      With the escalation of the need for ceramic pots with multiple functions began to appear porcelain and its spread and evolved techniques to be manufactured according to the changing social conditions of the people in the citizen stability of new villages and settlements and cities, as well as with the beginning of historical times about / 3000 BC. M / Since that period income porcelain to meet the needs of humanitarian multiple, whether domestic or Mdvinyh or ritual.

      In everyday life used clay pots for various purposes such as storage of grain and food and fluids, and in other cases, to bury the dead or to contain the ashes of corpses burned according to the rite of specific religious or even to provide the Dead requirements to live after death and to ensure continuity in the life metaphysical by the beliefs of some ancient peoples. This constitutes material porcelain art historians and archaeologists background material for the study of the evolution of civilizations through the ages, and became aware of porcelain today from basic science within archeology, So what are the specifics of this science in terms of study and classification of ceramic materials and the diversity of its forms and decoration? What are the basic materials that make up the porcelain?.

      As already mentioned in the introduction to this study, it can not talk about the porcelain without knowing the soil and their properties, which are the basic material for most types of ceramics, soils mixed with water form the mud flexible and sticky stainless formation and contraction and cohesion after drought and stainless rigidity and ossification after firing, and the soil is a mixture of silica and Almanaiziom Clay called in Arabic is called Argela (Argilla) in Latin.

      The process of preparation of clay or dough clay-based ceramics because the choice of materials and methods of preparation determine the pattern pieces made from them for this, the soil passed through several stages before its formation liquidated first to be cleaned of impurities and so crushed and Tngelha and Whatsoever, and transferred later to the basin settling, may remain slurry in the basin for a long time depending on the need for basic manufacturing, and after drying mud taken from the basin and add the fine sand then knead with hands or legs in order to rid of the bubbles air, and becomes more homogeneous and fit for work.

How is looking forward to the public's ceramic piece old or modern?

      The general public that ceramics ranging under the framework of the craft, called Artisanat, and potter is literally achieve primary needs of the community and the surrounding environment through material-made mud, and in fact, according to our opinion Kmargen of art that ceramics is a craft art variable gives us different possibilities in physical form ( impact), and decorative (Art), and from the moment they began the attention potter coloring circles or drawing colored lines on the pitcher, bowl, or a bottle, became his mode of expression of talent pictorial first and novelist (Scene human, animal, Mythology) later without interest biscuits (pottery clay resulting from Shui) any material bearing colorful image, if Valkhzaf article deals with an artist and not a maker and craftsman only.

      It seems that the event basis in the history of ceramics depends on collecting material dust to water to form slurry and presented to the air to dry, and submitted to the fire to gain strength sustainability on the air to dry, as it seems to gesture love brought elements of nature four: earth, water, air, and fire in order to do configuration "configuration" ceramic art.

      Here begins the story of the hand (tool) tool creativity, composition and configuration, tool collecting dust), and soil is the earth which becomes the pot, and the hand that brings water to the soil to give viscous mud stainless formation.

       It is forming artistic clay displays mud air which dries the container problem, and the hand that transmit after touches formation dried to the fire for cooking (grilling) - is the mediator technical basis for the formation of balance between the elements of nature that formed the "porcelain" (case of Creative Arts), a / hand Human Artist / that made mass balance, shape and material possibility of endless in terms of the composition of the literal and technical first and career what is the problem of porcelain Secondly, the artist potter is carved circle of block-based dust and water (mud), and with the help cupboard goes potter further than vacuum forming where one of the forces used the simple physics of the body "centrifugal force" which is equal to the spiritual dimension of any creative work depends on the hand and soul together.

      The integration of dirt into the water processed by human hands and the art of the two is the production of a natural love of the soil water (the elements of nature, the Nile and the Euphrates for example, is more like a love of nature and human nature to love the same)

      The value of any social and spiritual work casserole is inseparable from the basic function of which make for it lies in the level of their owners choose them, and show on a social level and upscale parallel in the material value to some extent, and this is proved by the decorative elements.

      Finally, he found the potter through the ages it is normal to establish a close relationship and narrow give a measure of importance to creative work for any real mud may be formed, it is a confidential relationship like style mystic esoteric: The soul's body - the relationship of soil to the land, have reflected that relationship and concepts borrowed sometimes decoration work ceramic.

      So in the old as the day was pots are described by terms borrowed from anatomy aesthetic of the human body: Venga in ceramics from the lips, neck, shoulders, abdomen, legs, arm (ear to the Greeks) as if we were either carved a living person or creativity to work neighborhood: Japan ceramic.

      This, without a doubt, an aesthetic work ceramic anytime and anywhere is not isolated from its goal Career Statute, which made for him, and that nosedive were on a deep knowledge of the values ​​art that we talked about, and probably more than we imagine, and certainly through the data more diverse still need to be exposed in the future.

Pottery art .. absent in Egypt despite the years of civilizations

Haj Mahmoud Abdeen Sheikh Alfajarin, head of the Egyptian Association for the development of pottery and porcelain in Fustat, who was born in Cairo in 1934, inherited the profession from Jdodh «Alguenaoyen», love the profession from a young age size with it, did not complete his studies because he was the only breadwinner for his family.

It tells Haj Mahmoud secrets of the industry, saying: Sure there are conditions for workers pottery good, such that when it starts to be old is not more than ten years, because it is a career sense and a sense must be cultivated in the child when he was young, and concentrated in the palm of the hand knows when mud wine or « leveled »and then submit it to the maker Asbgh.

No particular form of a piece of pottery, Valassana make the form that comes to mind is a sense of a career first-class.

And stages of pottery, confirms that the Haj Mahmoud each piece its own way, there is a cut made in two stages and other pieces made in six stages.

And confirms the Haj Mahmoud that profession pottery profession very profitable anywhere, but in Egypt it is a profession very poor, although that Egypt has Fustat oldest city in the history of pottery from the era of the Pharaohs, in addition to the presence of seven cities mentioned in the history of pottery, including : Tunisia, Morocco, Fustat, Thailand, New Zealand, Mexico, and the oldest Fustat all.

What distinguishes Egyptian pottery is Handyman, Vassana Egyptian pottery is characterized by skill and proficiency.

There are different types of clay used in pottery clay there Aswani and Alaspocklh and Albrooslin silt Nile and best quality is mud-Aswani.

He says Haj Mahmoud: Many college students Fine and Applied Arts visit him a lot, and some of them attend the Postgraduate Pottery, indicates Haj Mahmoud to fondness and interest of French pottery, there is in the Louvre special part pottery whose Fustat, and in the late nineties traveled son Ashraf to France and take his Maker Pottery and Dolaba «machine used by the formation of pottery», mud and attended an exhibition in France a special manual work, and the French were standing in amazement and awe when they see Maker pottery is clay man or vase or child's play, written about 11 newspaper in France for the pharaoh Egyptian.

He recalls Haj Mahmoud stories with pottery, saying: I participated in the foreign film named «Ten Commandments» in 1955 tells the story of «Moses», where the request of the director working industry accessories for the film, and they were all made of pottery, and they bring accessories used in this time from America.

He went on Haj Mahmoud his speech saying: Zaman in the popular neighborhoods was a bridesmaid is not free of pottery, and the people of the bride are buying Chinese copper and the four reduced decorated ornaments, and luggage had to Arabiyat cart and wheel Ihamloh four Chinese Kull copper in the introduction, in addition to the ability of obesity municipal made also of pottery, and were present in the houses rich and poor, and the lack of Sbua In rural Alobor dough was Nip made of pottery.

On the future of pottery in Egypt, Sheikh WISHES Alfajarin be concerned with the state of the industry in Egypt, because the pottery industry in Egypt now die.

Pottery Industry in Arabian Gulf region

The pottery of the traditional crafts that interested in the people of the region since ancient times, as indicated techniques archaeological conducted on the pottery were scattered thousands of years ago, the existence of material suitable for the industry, and the need of the population to pottery to cook food and water conservation, and is still the industry exist in many areas of the Gulf states, and are concentrated in the United Arab Emirates area of ​​Ras Al Khaimah.

And clay varies by region, which brings them to be used in the manufacture of pottery.
The mud used in the UAE is red clay and green clay and mud yellow, are mixed with each previous species and certain proportions are brought mud from the nearby mountains in the valley included. The white clay used in the industry are newly imported from Iran.

There are three ways to work:

1 - formation by modeling each piece Single working hand separately.
2 - Use templates and forms that works for all the vessels template into which the dough and remove from the mold after the "pride" Xie fire "out of the oven."
3 - Use the wheel, "the wheel" by putting mud in the wheel spins and constitute Tina during the rotation of the top and bottom to be desired shape.
The return spread plaster industry in the Gulf to the availability of material lime used.
In the past, the literal "potter" do all the work in the workshop "fetch" and the setup and preparation, manufacture, synthesis, and incineration. "

After the increased intensity of work needed literal who assisted so that he can meet the demands and increase productivity, bringing work in the workshop doing more than one person, and led to the division of labor according to each stage, and there has been a kind of specialization in the work, and the most important functions that are currently in the workshops are :

1 - craftsmen: a literal who makes pottery.
2 - Recombinant or Almhtab: worker who trained on the industry nor mastered, who shall work simple things such as "synthesis" and final finishing of the vase.
3 - Assistant: who shall prepare mud and preparation, and help in the transfer of pots and described in the workshop, and the oven when burning.

How to prepare clay:

After bringing the mud of his whereabouts by animals "is currently transported by car" to the workshop, working on hit by a stick, "Kassar" so as to relaxing which helps on the Palm, and then be ready for the setup process.
The process is done in a pool circular radius meter and a half beside her three pools rectangular shape, and is positioned 35 "Ajafira" of red clay and 65 of white clay and green, and pours them with water and then leave for two hours, after which workers come and come down into the pond radiating out water The mud of the mixing process and extract impurities from the mud by "Almchkal" and when you are sure that there are no impurities in the clay is placed "refinery" on the slot in the pond in order to be distributed by the pond the other three, and relate ponds three by slots with each other, and leave the mud until consolidate, then takes him to manufacturers what he wants.

Method of learning the craft:

And are learning the craft through inheritance, and thus move the craft from generation to generation in the same family, and this is done that comes manufacturer to one of his sons or all of them to work with him in the workshop, and begin the first stage in learning the craft by watching, and take a viewing of this period from one week to month and then comes the stage of assistance through to ask literal "artisans" of his son that the helping in the transfer of pots ready to be placed in a particular place in the workshop the reach of the sun to dry, and helps his father as well as to convey to him the mud and Ejehzh to work after preparation, and this period to take at least two months to 6 months, and then begin the first attempts by the son that the synthesis and finishing, and during that period are trained to manufacture and work small models such as the cup and the cup and saucer, and if mastered work began training on making large models.
The person who is trained from outside the family Artisan it comes to the workshop to learn the profession and during the training period does not get paid, but conducted by learning the craft

Tools and equipment to made a pottery

When you begin pottery industry, you need to essential tools are simple and few. The other tools can be purchased when needed later. Tools needed for public use are: a bucket, a deep time (bowl), a small time, pitchers measurable, spiral (machine to rotate the base work).

You need to balance the weight of the clay expands to five kilograms at least, and a pot of plastic water while you work on the wheel, and several pieces of sponge different sizes. The pot plastic to cut excess clay falling from the cupboard, and needles or pins for decoration, and pieces of metal and rubber for smooth, wire cutter to remove the pots from the cupboard, and Calliper (a tool for measuring the thickness of thing).

Circuit card, and transparent paper, scissors, and a huge plastic bottle to save plastic clay where, and scales, and sieves and mortar and a piece of cloth absorbable, and a wooden board.

If you want to use the economy palette knife and wooden kitchen cooking and cloth redundant. Hand tools appropriate necessary. See the purchase of tools, features, and its operational effectiveness and compare several catalogs.

At first, dealing with pottery style initially to have the opportunity to test you rule defines how much time remains flexible and when to start Baltsda. Pottery needs to deal cautiously and not to increase the duration of the work done and once again become only the cut.

Must be fixed workbench, with a solid surface waterproof. And cover with oiled smooth surface; so as not to affect the edges of clay acute warming - that leave scratches on painted wood - on this surface or wounding him. If you find that the situation is still dangerous to go to work wooden board, place a piece of cloth under the pottery in order not to adhere to the surface wooden. When you have finished work piece is, put it on a small wooden board, put a piece of cloth to absorb a second excess water in addition to separate the two surfaces.

First - Cut the clay from the basic template by wire, and use a kitchen knife to teething operations and straightening and cutting.

The next phase includes the use of the potter's wheel, which you can rotate the piece and work out from all sides, making skilled craftsmen can wheel themselves. But put forms of wheels in the markets of steel, and steel cast, and aluminum. It is available in diameter (20-30 cm) and some of them bracket helps to spin smoothly and bounds. You can buy wheels without bracket or the position is suitable for use school or home. The benefit of this type can save after use in a closet or on a shelf, and the wheels are triangular position stand-alone control and appreciate.

It is important to put a piece of cloth between the pottery wheel and makes it easier to remove them later.

Use ready-made panels for cutting plaster helps to absorb excess water is better than wood planks.

It will become clear to you through your attempts primary in the ceramics industry need for a tool at your fingertips.

Tools for modeling (configuration) Nhitan Mokhtfatta shape. Select tool - based on your need - have a long spoon and mending parties for various purposes of cutting and shaping tools straightening make the best of boxwood or ebony. Whenever harder wood, it was easier to deal with him.

There is also a simple plastic models but soon stand unable to meet your purposes (may be sufficient for the purposes of the school).

There are also a variety of knives, especially pottery industry, and the broad knife remains the best.

You need to buy at least three types of tools with a loop in the end and a variety of tools and modeling the formation process of grinding and removal of clay from work, and cavity blocks thick. When the rough tools, use sharp tools. You can these tools Shaping shapes somewhat thin, and engraving your initials and the date on the basis of the resulting work. There are tools alternative needles knitting, defect teeth. If you want to make holes for the round pieces that are attached or models, Waechter cutters holes and only use the tool cavity apples.

According thorns also in the making of models with scratches and drilled and coarse. I work very carefully so as not to form part extracted work. Preparation and the formation of segments of clay you need to stage a rolling clay.

There are two types of tools tweaking (rolling); piece with two handles help to change attitudes and other simple rounded diameter (35 mm), for segments of identical, then work both ways, and for slices thick proportionate, cut clay arc cutter of the cluster core.

When used method of claim Turning Tools you need to help more like a wave turnings and sponges. Turning Tools like routers forming and anthropomorphism are made of hardwood (but some are made of plastic or metal) select what suits you, it is also necessary during turning a two buckets of water and a sponge to absorb excess moisture, preferably natural sponge. You will need to stick to the sponge collage vases long.

Tools refine pottery (glaze):
The work is well polished aesthetic value but work poorly polished Veoda perfectly Maker, that good tools key to success, and here you need for various types of brushes - do not try the economy.

Be polishing brush width (75 mm) and enough brush width (25 mm) for most surfaces.

Buy a brush glaze different for each process to avoid washing after every time when decorate pieces of finished and that the process of refining a full, medium or normal then you need to brushes with animal hair soft or very soft. Suffice initially brushes regular, but to get the best results you need to brush more expensive.

Can be the first attempts to refine the spray paint spray tool. To add substance refinement, you use the sieve, when mixed materials for polishing, raw materials, etc., always cringe anti-dust mask to protect the mouth because these materials contain the toxic gases.

 Tools Workshop:
When the workshop, the first thing you need to lie faucet water and laundry, and shelves are also required to put the pieces ready to dry them. Private ribbed shelves that allow the passage of air from the bottom, you should also get a table fixed to address the clay.

The clay that you want to keep it for a long time, you should provide containers waxed and sealed to large amounts of it, and the small quantities is sufficient plastic sheeting left over from the clay you have purchased before. You can save material refinement in glass containers with a wide neck and a paint in containers smaller.

You also need tools for small ruler long, and a hammer and chisel, and sandpaper, and an overwhelming wheel, as well as drills and pliers.

Wheels ceramists and furnaces Tools largest and need considerations minutes. Ask the advice of your purchase with shopkeepers competent.

There wheels run underfoot and other electric motor, electric wheel are also available at the top of a table which is suitable for making small pieces.

For furnaces, there are copies electric variety is very large. Working gas furnace gas propane and its many uses, but necessary to do so.

And watch out for ways to discharge gas burning, and each type there are pieces Bricks private, pillar oven or position where trio placed pots for nothing. You will need to finally gloves when constipation Bakaddor hot.

Before the process of polishing the oven, cover the pieces brick thermal lotion certain prevent the flow of material refinement lenses to pieces brick precious. But if you can not or do not want to buy an oven you can use such facilities from local craft Assembly.

Test the resiliency of clay:
To test the flexibility of clay; Take a handful of clay, wrapped in a vertical Kosaba sausage, then Atnha and watch what happens to them.

Forming and decorating clay:
Basic ways to work with clay:
The most basic ways kneading clay and add plastic; Fjn clay is very important as a choice right kind of clay. The clay is made by mixing machines in the labs. Then put on the market in the ultra-packed plastic sheeting, weigh these scrolls usually (10 kg).

Although the pottery had been prepared well; washed and Mzoja, what still needs to knead. The purpose of kneading is D and dissemination of salts in the clay chips are small along the material and make them take complex internally uniform can get such a kneading when mixing clay for the first time with clay heat and water.

We can not avoid the process of kneading, because of its primary function also make clay more flexible, and the expulsion of air bubbles that remain in some of the articles.

And her mischievous role during the process of thing where expands the impact of high temperature and if you do find an outlet through the pores are broken piece easily.

Another problem may Tkablk during the process of turning (rotation on the wheel) where you can pay centrifugal force air bubbles to form outside Vitshuh much as made.

Before kneading, take a large piece of clay weighs about (10 kg), and placed on a table beneath a fixed position wire cutter and then Ajzbh to the top so that the cut piece of the middle. Place one piece Almtsawitin above the other and start Bajn. After that, Mark is a quarter circle clay to the left and repeat the process. Then use the wire cutter again the same way.

Put blocs of pottery over each other again and Knead piece with four layers after the following process will have Hani layers, and with time will be repeated the process 20 times and have a mass of very flexible.

Another way to prepare less discomfort clay, but you can not use this method only with small quantities; Cut a piece by (1-2 kg) of the cluster core Ajnha on the table Wolff clay on some snail shell is. It is important to work in one direction only so as not to collect excess air bubbles.

Clay plastic:
Clay is soft washed with plenty of water. And requests of this type of clay sticky when arrived lines clay to form chips or to make repairs.

As you work with clay, you'll find some crumbs falling clay and dries very quickly.

Collect this crumbs and put it in a jar and cover with water waxed and two hours later will become dry residue paste pottery soft or Salsala to DNA. Keep Paljrh tarpaulins always ready for any emergency like this. To maintain balance with evaporation Add amount of water from time to time. Must be a plastic clay strength and intensity of the dough is not liquid.

Can clay plastic union with any work casserole easily. Scrape shapes that will unite together with a fork and then covered with a layer of clay and plastic affixed together by pressing the light.

Cut slides that will include both edges jagged - then add a lot of clay plastic to the parties and reach to get in touch very closely Put a strip of thin clay in place of contact.

Performs plastic clay to coarse parts and grooved from work and the associated very closely. Leave any surplus flowing plastic clay to dry and then Akeshth knife. If Oazelth before it dries had been working for failure.
You can not join two pieces together without plastic clay.

From clay to porcelain:
The following procedure is consistent and durable, tried several times until it becomes natural, it is difficult to make in this area without mastering these steps:
Knead the clay.

Remove the required amount of clay and shape in the form of a ball.
Formation piece Authority required.
If necessary put some decoration, do it now as long as the clay soft and can scratch, put your signature, or stamp, arrived the pieces together.

If your cavity piece thickness greater than (2 cm) in order to remove air bubbles reserved. In order to do this operation swear piece into two wire cutter, and before cutting marking along the line so that you can re-chipping for Sqhma together accurately.

An overabundance of clay from the inside by Mhhafe (knife) and the remaining walls are thicker borders (4-10 mm), depending on the type of piece.

Prepared paste parts together by plastic clay and make a hole out of which the air expanding.

Now is the time coloring work, a time when the clay firmly skin.

Place a piece of work produced on the shelf with caution to dry. Clay becomes fragile when it dries so requires special care to deal with it, use both hands to catch any piece. Do not try to carry the work of the potter linked parts or parts from candleholder are very thin and break directly. Can not fix broken parts at this stage almost.

Thing without refinement: Once dry the pieces so carefully placed in the oven and subjected to fire, then cools the oven and continue cutting. More severe of the above, however, do not try to catch her thin areas.
Here are polishing and coloring work.
The final thing after refinement.
It can remove the pieces ended at this stage of the furnace, although there is some refinement drops hanging on the base remove it on the wheel polishing (overwhelming) or by paper glass. Committed caution because the material refinement sharp